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Waqar Asrar
Professor

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Dr. Waqar Asrar graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA. He began his career in 1985 serving the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yarmouk University and later at Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid. During the period of 1991-1996, he was attached to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, India. From 1996 until 2002, he worked in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, University Putra Malaysia. Since 2003, he is serving the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIU ... show more

  • Ph.D in Engineering Mechanical - Doctor of Philosophy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
  • Master in Technology in Civil Engineering - Masters Degree, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  • Bachelor in Technology in Civil Engineering - Bachelor Degree, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  • Engineering Tech ~ Applied Sciences And Technologies ~ Aerospace ~ Experimental Aerodynamics - CFD, Fluid Dynamics
  • 2014 - 2014 , IIUM Press
  • 2013 - 2013 , American Chemical Society/Elsevier
  • 2011 - 2013 , Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • 2013 - 2013 , American Chemical Society/Elsevier
  • 2011 - 2011 , John Wiley & Sons
ADVANCED FLUID DYNAMIC 2015/2016 2017/2018 2018/2019
AERODYNAMICS I 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING LAB II 2012/2013
Aerospace Engineering Lab III 2018/2019
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS 2013/2014
EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMICS 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018
EXPERIMENTAL FLUID DYNAMICS 2011/2012
FLUID MECHANICS 2006/2007 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015
GAS DYNAMICS 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015
GAS DYNAMICS (LAB) 2003/2004 2004/2005
INTEGRATED DESIGN PROJECT 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 2018/2019
INTEGRATED DESIGN PROJECT (IDP) 2018/2019 2019/2020
INTERGRATED DESIGN PROJECT (IDP) 2017/2018
INTRODUCTION TO FLIGHT 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007
PROJECT II 2018/2019 2019/2020
VEHICLE AERODYNAMICS 2009/2010
In Progress
2018 - Present Passive control of the discrete tonal noise of NACA0015 airfoil for optimum aerodynamic and noise performances
2018 - Present Effect of abrupt geometry change on the flow structure and heat transfer efficiency in a Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow
2017 - Present Nonlinear Fluid Structure Interaction and Control of Lifting Surface and Body
2013 - Present IIUM Centre of Excellence for Electric Mobility (ICEM)
2013 - Present ESTABLISHMENT OF THE IIUM CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR ELECTRIC MOBILITY(ICEM)
Unknown - Present Effect of abrupt geometry change on the flow structure and heat transfer efficiency in a Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow
Completed
2015 - 2017 CFD Analysis of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with Selected Transition and Turbulence Models
2013 - 2013 Wind Resistance Test for Emergency Triangle Reflector
2013 - 2016 Wake Vortex Alleviation of a Wing with a Reverse Delta Wing Add-On Device Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
2013 - 2016 Hybrid Singularly Implicit - Explicit Kernel Function Method For Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis Of Multiple Interfering Aeroelastic Lifting Surfaces
2013 - 2013 Wind Resistance Test for Emergency Triangle Reflector
2013 - 2013 Wind Resistance Test for Emergency Triangle Reflector
2013 - 2016 Aerodynamic Stability Derivatives of a Hybrid Airship
2012 - 2014 Development of Electrical Vehicle by Converting Proton SAGA Conventional Car
2012 - 2012 Stability of Hybrid Airships
2011 - 2014 Turbulence Measurements for Flow Past a Surface Mounted Bluff Body (Cube and/or Cylinder)
2011 - 2013 Computational Methods In Engineering And Science (KVC Project 2011)
2011 - 2017 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Phase 1
2011 - 2012 The IIUM Low Speed Wind Tunnel - A Historical Perspective (KVC Project 2011)
2011 - 2011 Wind Tunnel Testing of Street Lamp at Wind Speed of 150KM / Hour IIUM/404/2011/05/001
2011 - 2013 Modification of The Design and Developed Hybrid Engine Powered Urban Concept Car
2011 - 2012 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Spoilers Configuration on wake Vortex
2011 - 2013 RU 2011: Drag Reduction Studies of A Truck
2010 - 2011 Development of a Multiphysics Model for Thermoelectricity Controlled MEMS-based Microthrusters.
2010 - 2011 Training program for Dr. Mahmood K mawlood
2009 - 2011 A Study of the Reverse Delta Wing using Particle Image Velocimetry
2009 - 2010 Design and Development of an "Urban Concept Hybrid Car"
2008 - 2010 The Dimensional Kinetic Gas Scheme BGK for Inviscid Flow Problems
2008 - 2011 Parametric Study of Car Aerodynamics
2008 - 2011 Design and Development of a Hybrid Airship
2008 - 2013 Dynamics and Instabilities of Heated Nano-Thin Falling Films
2008 - 2010 Aerodynamic Measurements on a Hybrid Airship
2008 - 2011 The Effect of Surface Properties of Nano-particles on Effective Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids
2007 - 2010 Two Dimensional Kinetic Gas Shceme BGK for Turbulent Flow Problems
2007 - 2010 Experimental Investigation of a Wing-Tip Alleviation Using Sharp-Edge Delta Wing Tip Extension
2007 - 2011 Experimental Investigation of Reverse Delta Wings for Vortex Alleviation
2005 - 2008 Modeling and Analysis of Fluid/Structure Interaction in Micropumps
Unknown - -1 Consultancy and Usage of Wind Tunnel Testing - University Malaya
07 فبراير 2011 Silver Medal. Malaysian Technology Expo 2011 - National level.
26 ديسمبر 2006 Gold Medal. KERIE?06, IIUM. 2006 - University level.
Article
2020 Effect of a directionally porous wing tip on tip vortex. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics , 13 (2) pp.651-665
2019 A comparative study of two different numerical schemes for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics of heated falling thin films. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering , 7 (6) pp.100-105
2019 An Investigation of RANS simulations for swirl-stabilized isothermal turbulent flow in a gas turbine burner. CFD Letters , 11 (9) pp.14-31
2018 Experimental investigation of a new spiral wingtip. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace , 5 (2) pp.1-32
2018 Low reynolds number numerical simulation of the aerodynamic coefficients of a 3D wing. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace , 5 (1) pp.1-27
2018 Aerodynamics of porous airfoils and wings. Acta Mechanica , online 1st pp.1-19
2018 Low-cost base drag reduction technique. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research (IJMERR) , 7 (4) pp.428-432
2017 Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form of flowfield dependent variation method for fluid-structure interaction application. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 12 (7) pp.2338-2344
2017 Hybrid buoyant aircraft: future STOL aircraft for interconnectivity of the Malaysian islands. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering , 6 (2) pp.80-88
2017 Literature review : Biomimetic and conventional aircraft wing tips. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace , 4 (2) pp.1-25
2017 Defining reference area for prediction of aerodynamic coefficients of a biologically inspired hybrid buoyant vehicle. Unmanned Systems , 5 (4) pp.237-246
2017 Wind tunnel testing of hybrid buoyant aerial vehicle. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , 89 (1) pp.99-105
2017 Yawing force of electric trimmers of a hybrid buoyant aerial vehicle. Pertanika J Sci and tech , 25 (1) pp.293-302
2017 Effect of diamond shaped strut with cylindrical pitch rod in subsonic wind tunnel testing. Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation , 99 pp.1-6
2016 A review on aerodynamics of nonflapping bird wings. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management , 8 (1 (Jan-Mar)) pp.7-17
2016 Framework of conceptual design methodology for hybrid buoyant aircraft. Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio = The Journal of Aerospace Science, Technology and Systems , 95 (2 (April-June)) pp.99-110
2016 Wind tunnel testing on a generic model of a hybrid lifting hull. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management , 8 (4) pp.467-474
2016 Impact of a reverse delta type add-on device on the flap-tip vortex of a wing. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace , 3 (3) pp.1-28
2016 Establishing the analytical relationships for mass and volumetric mass fractions for hybrid buoyant aircraft. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 11 (1) pp.286-291
2016 Solutions of higher order boundary value problems by homotopy perturbation method. Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences , 10 (Special Issue) pp.373-387
2016 Estimation of pitching moment of a hybrid lifting fuselage - Disguised as hull of an airship. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 11 (4) pp.2217-2221
2016 Assessment of engine's power budget for hydrogen powered hybrid buoyant aircraft. Propulsion and Power Research , 5 (1) pp.34-44
2016 Influence of a reverse delta-type add-on device on wake vortex alleviation. AIAA Journal , 54 (2) pp.625-636
2016 Effect of wing loading on gross takeoff mass of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. International Journal of Unmanned Systems Engineering , 4 (1) pp.11-22
2015 Aerostatic and aerodynamic modules of a hybrid buoyant aircraft: an analytical approach. IIUM Engineering Journal , 16 (1) pp.9-17
2015 Higher-Order Compact-Flow Field-Dependent Variation (HOC-FDV) method for solving two-dimensional navier-stokes equations. International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics , 16 (4) pp.256-263
2015 The multistage homotopy perturbation method for solving chaotic and hyperchaotic Lü system. Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2015 pp.398027-1
2015 Half model testing for canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering , 9 (10) pp.1544-1547
2015 Flowfield dependent variation method for one dimensional stationary and moving boundary problems. International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering , 10 (1/2) pp.130-144
2015 Design and fabrication of a winged hybrid airship model for IIUM-LSWT. Advanced Materials Research , 1115 pp.513-516
2015 A numerical investigation of explicit pressure-correction projection methods for incompressible flows. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics pp.1-16
2015 Cambered profile of a California sea lion's body. The Journal of Experimental Biology , 218 pp.1270-1271
2015 Flowfield-dependent variation method for moving-boundary problems. AIAA Journal , 53 (4) pp.1026-1036
2015 Numerical study of effect of spoiler configuration on wake vortex alleviation. ASCE Journal of Aerospace Engineering , 28 (3)
2014 Passive drag reduction of square back road vehicles. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics , 134 (2014) pp.30-43
2014 Review of passive drag reduction techniques for bluff road vehicles.. IIUM Engineering Journal , 15 (1) pp.61-69
2013 Two-dimensional flow properties of micronozzle under varied isothermal wall conditions . International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation , 5 (4) pp.174-180
2013 A BGK-based two-equation turbulence model algorithm for solving compressible navier-stokes equations. CFD Letters , 6 (2) pp.46-61
2013 The multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for solving chaotic Lü System. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research , 13 pp.43-49
2012 Investigation of aerodynamic parameters of a hybrid airship. Journal of Aircraft , 49 (2) pp.658-661
2012 Micropump modeling: current status and challenges. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 6 (1) pp.134-142
2012 Evolution of NACA23012 wake vortices structure using PIV . Journal of Aerospace Engineering , 25 (1) pp.10-20
2011 Design process involved in developing mechanism of linear motor operated multiple spray operations spray gun. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 5 (7) pp.843-850
2011 Effect of differential spoiler settings (DSS) on the wake vortices of a wing at high-lift-configuration (HLC). Aerospace Science and Technology , 15 (7) pp.555-566
2011 Study of the reverse delta wing. Journal of Aircraft , 48 (1) pp.277-286
2010 Influence of differential spoiler settings on the wake vortex characterization and alleviation. Journal of Aircraft , 47 (5) pp.1728-1738
2010 Induced rolling moment for NACA4412 plain and flapped wing. International Journal of Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , 82 (1) pp.23-32
2010 Higher order compact-flowfield dependent variation (HOC-FDV) solution of one-dimensional problems. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics , 4 (3) pp.434-440
2010 Influence of differential spoiler settings on the wake the vortex characterization and alleviation. Journal of Aircraft , 47 (5) pp.1728-1738
2010 A high order compact-flowfield dependent variation (HOC-FDV)method for inviscid flows. International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics , 11 (5) pp.258-263
2009 Comparison of high-order accurate schemes for solving the nonlinear viscous burgers equation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 3 (3) pp.2535-2543
2009 Accuracy of Bhatnagaar-Gross-Krook scheme in solving laminar viscous flow problems. AIAA Journal , 47 (4) pp.885-892
2009 Experimental investigation of plain- and flapped-wing tip vortices. Journal of Aircraft , 46 (1) pp.254-262
2006 Solution of Navier-Stokes equations by fourth-order compact schemes and AUSM flux splitting. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow , 16 (1) pp.107-120
2006 Application of Gas-Kinetic BGK Scheme for Solving 2-D Compressible Inviscid Flow around Linear Turbine Cascade. International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics , 7 (6) pp.403-410
2005 Hypersonic flow simulation by the gas-kinetic bhatnagar-gross-krook scheme. AIAA JOURNAL , 43 (7) pp.1427-1433
1998 Chaos in wraparound fin projectile motion. AIAA Journal , 21 (2) pp.354-356

Conference or Workshop Item

2018 Counter clockwise rotation of cylinder with variable position to control base flows. In: 1st International Conference on Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, AeroMech 2017
2018 The multistage homotopy perturbation method for solving hyperchaotic Chen system. In: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Applications in Engineering 2017, ICMAE 2017
2018 Nonlinear dynamics of heated falling films under the influence of long-range Van Der Walls intermolecular force interactions. In: 4th International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive, and Aerospace Engineering 2018 (ICMAAE’18)
2018 Active control of base pressure with counter clockwise rotating cylinder at Mach 2. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Engineering Technologies and Applied Sciences, ICETAS 2017
2018 Passive control of base pressure with static cylinder at supersonic flow. In: 1st International Conference on Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (AeroMech 2017)
2018 Classical equivalent circuit characterization for a double-layer capacitor. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications (ICSIMA) 2017
2017 Instabilities in non-isothermal falling thin film flows. In: 4th International Conference of Mathematical Applications in Engineering 2017 (ICMAE 2017)
2017 Experimental investigation of the influence of a reverse delta type add-on device on the flap-tip vortex of a wing. In: 3rd International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2016 (ICMAAE’16)
2017 Numerical simulation of non-isothermal thin liquid film flow on inclined plane using an implicit finite difference scheme. In: 3rd International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2016 (ICMAAE’16)
2017 Generation of atmospheric boundary layer in the IIUM low speed wind tunnel. In: 3rd International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2016 (ICMAAE’16)
2017 Structural design of hybrid buoyant aircraft's model for subsonic wind tunnel testing. In: 14th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST)
2016 Effect of side wind on the directional stability and aerodynamics of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 2015 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Systems (ICMES 2015)
2016 Comparison of data correction methods for blockage effects in semispan wing model testing. In: "10th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, EFM 2015"
2016 A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 10th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, EFM 2015
2016 A prospective solution For consistent aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management in Kuala Lumpur, IEOM 2016
2015 Power-off static stability analysis of a clean configuration of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 8th Ankara International Aerospace Conference 2015
2015 Aerodynamic performance of a naca 23012 half wing model with a reverse delta wing type add-on device . In: 8th Ankara International Aerospace Conference
2015 Aerodynamics and Static Stability Characteristics of a Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicle at Low Speed. In: 62nd Canadian Aerospace Institute Conference (Aero 2015)
2015 Establishing the analytical relationships for mass and volumetric mass fractions for hybrid boyant aircraft. In: International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering Research (IPCER) 2015
2015 Hydrostatic and hydrodynamic characteristics of swimming animals: an inspiration for hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 4th International Scientific Conference on Applied Sciences and Engineering (4 thISCASE-2015)
2014 Conceptual design of a winged hybrid airship. In: 21st Lighter than Air Technology Conference, Aviation 2014
2014 Stability and takeoff ground roll issues of hybrid buoyant aircraft. In: 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING 2014 (ICME2014)
2014 Comparison of digital DATCOM and wind tunnel data of a winged hybrid airship’s generic model. In: AEROTECH V
2014 Arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian form of flowfield dependent variation method for moving boundary problems. In: Aviation 2014 - 32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference 2014
2014 Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Form of Flowfield Dependent Variation (ALE-FDV) Method for 3D Problems. In: 22nd Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada
2014 Static longitudinal stability of a hybrid airship. In: 11th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST)
2013 Hybrid numeric-analytic method for solving chaotic system. In: IIUM Research, Invention and Innovation Exhibition (IRIIE) 2013
2013 Experimental investigation of a vertical round free turbulent jet. In: 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2013
2012 Passive drag reduction for green design. In: International Conference on Dessign and Concurrent Engineering, 2012
2012 Numerical investigation of the vortical flow over delta wing and reverse delta wing. In: 6th International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting (ACE-X2012)
2012 Numerical analysis of FDV method for one-dimensional Euler equations. In: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Applications in Engineering (ICMAE2012)
2012 The modified Adomian decomposition method for solving Chaotic Lü system. In: International Conference on Mathematical Application in Engineering (ICMAE 2012)
2011 The accuracy of the gas-kinetic BGK finite difference method for solving 3-D compressible inviscid flows. In: International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011 (IMECS 2011),
2011 Improving the efficiency of micronozzle by heated sidewalls. In: 4th International Meeting of Advances in Thermofluids (IMATT 2011)
2011 Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship. In: 4th International Meeting of Advances in Thermofluids (IMATT 2011)
2011 Estimation of aerodynamic parameters of IIUM hybrid airship. In: International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering
2011 Investigation of the vortical flow around a reverse delta wing. In: International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2011 (ICMAAE11)
2011 Highly accurate compact flowfield dependent variation method for solving two-dimensional navier-stokes equations. In: International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering 2011
2011 Two-dimensional flow properties of micronozzle under varied isothermal wall conditions. In: International Conference on Mechanical, Automotive and Aerospace Engineering, ICMAAE’11
2010 Experimental investigation of the vortical flow around a reverse delta wing using PIV. In: Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2010
2010 Long wave instabilities of heated falling films: role of Van Der Waals attraction. In: XIVth International Conference Surface Forces
2010 Development of the IIUM hybrid airship . In: 3rd Engineering Conference on Advancement in Mechanical and Manufacturing for Sustainable Environment
2010 Higher order compact-flowfield dependent variation (HOCFDV) method for solving navier-stokes equations. In: The 8th Asian Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference
2010 Span load modification via differential spoiler setting . In: 2010 RAeS Aerodynamics Conference Applied Aerodynamics: Capabilities and Future Requirements
2010 Development of a fuel efficient hybrid engine towards green technology. In: International Conference on Sustainable Mobility 2010
2009 Accurate compact flowfield-dependent variation method for compressible Euler equations. In: International Conference on Applications and Design in Mechanical Engineering 2009 (iCADME 2009)
2009 Reynolds averaged navier-stokes flow computation of RAE2822 airfoil using gas-kinetic BGK Scheme. In: International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS)
2009 Experimental investigation of wing tip vortex. In: 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2009
2009 Evaluation of aircraft wing-tip vortex using PIV. In: The 10th Asian International Conference on Fluid Machinery (AICFM)
2008 A gas-kinetic BGK solver for two-dimensional turbulent compressible flow. In: International Conference on Scientific Computing
2008 Natural convection heat transfer in nanofluids - a numerical study. In: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Transport Phenomenon in Manufacturing Processes 2008
2008 The IIUM low speed wind tunnel. In: 2nd Engineering Conference on Sustainable Engineering Infrastructures Development & Management
2008 Flow field characteristics of the IIUM low speed wind tunnel. In: 3rd International Symposium on Advanced Fluid/Solid Science and Technology in Experimental Mechanics
2004 The Efficiency of Gas-Kinetic BGK scheme for solving 2-d compressible inviscid regular shock reflection problem. In: European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering

Book

2011 The IIUM low speed wind tunnel: a historical perspective. IIUM Press . ISBN 9789674180263

Book Section

2015 Numerical investigation of the flow over delta wing and reverse delta wing. In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics Springer International publishing . ISBN 978-3-319-02835-4 (print) , pp.85-101
2011 Higher-order compact finite difference schemes. . In: Advanced Numerical Techniques in Engineering and Science IIUM Press . ISBN 978-967-418-020-1 , pp.99-156
2011 Designing a model for wind tunnel testing. In: Advanced topics in mechanical behavior of materials IIUM Press , pp.0-1